Planomonospora sp. PM18: ISOLATION AND TAXONOMY
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OF NEW ACTINOBACTERIAL STRAIN ISOLATED

FROM ALGERIAN SAHARAN SOIL

CHAABANE CHAOUCH Fawzia1, BOUZNADA Khaoula1, BOURAS Noureddine1,2*, TATA Samira1, MEKLAT Atika1,3, MOKRANE Salim1,LAMARI Lynda1, KEMASSI Abdellah2,4, MATHIEU Florence5 and SABAOU Nasserdine1

(1)Laboratoire de Biologie des Systèmes Microbiens (LBSM) 

Ecole Normale Supérieure de Kouba, Alger, Algeria

(2)Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie et Sciences de la Terre

Université de Ghardaïa, BP 455, Ghardaïa 47000, Algeria

(3)Département de Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaire, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie

Université Saâd Dahleb, Blida, Algeria

(4)Laboratoire de protection des écosystèmes en zones arides et semi-arides

Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, 30000 Ouargla, Algeria

(5)Université de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique (LGC), UMR 5503 (CNRS/INPT/UPS)

INP de Toulouse/ENSAT, 1 Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, Castanet-Tolosan cedex, France

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Abstract.- An actinobacterial strain, designated PM18, was isolated from a Saharan soil sample by agar plate dilution method on chitin-vitamin agar supplemented with polymyxin after pretreatment of the soil sample at 120°C (dry heat) for 1 h. The taxonomic status of this strain was determined basis on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain PM18 developed an extensively branched and non-fragmented substrate mycelium. The isolate was characterized by the presence of cylindrical monosporous sporangia, which were produced only on the aerial mycelium. Sporangia were arranged closely in parallel double rows. The monosporous sporangia were motile. The morphological features of this isolate corresponded to those of members of the genus Planomonospora. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain PM18 is a member of the genus Planomonospora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that this strain was most closely related to Planomonospora sphaerica JCM 9374T (99.2%) and Planomonospora parontospora subsp. antibiotica JCM 3094T (98.8%). Based on phenotypic differences and the separate position of strain PM18 in the phylogenetic tree, this strain may be a representative of a putative novel species in the genusPlanomonospora.

Key words: Planomonospora, Actinobacteria, taxonomy, Saharan soil, Microbial diversity.

Planomonospora sp. PM18: ISOLEMENT ET TAXONOMIE D’UNE NOUVELLE SOUCHE D’ACTINOBACTÉRIE ISOLÉE

DU SOL SAHARIEN ALGÉRIEN

Résumé.-Une souche d’actinobactérie, désignée PM18, est isolée d'un échantillon de sol saharien par la méthode de suspensions-dilutions sur milieu chitine-vitamines agar additionné de polymyxine, après un prétraitement de l'échantillon de sol à 120°C (chaleur sèche) pendant 1 h. La position taxonomique de cette souche est déterminée sur la base des caractéristiques morphologiques et physiologiques, ainsi que sur l’analyse phylogénétique après séquençage du gène codant pour l’ARNr 16S. La souche PM18 produit un mycélium du substrat ramifié et non fragmenté et un mycélium aérien portant des sporanges cylindriques monosporés disposés en une double rangée parallèle. Les sporangiospores sont mobiles. Les caractéristiques morphologiques de cette souche correspondent à ceux des membres du genre Planomonospora. L’appartenance à ce genre a été confirmée par l’analyse phylogénétique.L’alignement de la séquence de la souche PM18 a montré un pourcentage de similarité de 99,2% avec Planomonospora sphaerica JCM 9374T et 98,8% avec Planomonospora parontospora. sous espèce antibiotica JCM 3094T. En se basant sur les différences phénotypiques et sur sa position distincte dans l'arbre phylogénétique, la souche PM18 pourrait une nouvelle espèce du genre Planomonospora.

Mots clés:Planomonospora, Actinobactéries, taxonomie, sol saharien, diversité microbienne.

Introduction

Research isolating rare actinobacterial genera from Saharan soils is based on the assumption that samples from widely diverse locations are more likely to yield novel microorganisms and therefore, hopefully, novel secondary metabolites as a result of the geographical (eco-pedological) variation. Besides, this approach is helpful in discovering new actinobacterial species which produce a wide range of bioactive substances from Saharan soils [1-5].

Planomonospora is a Gram positive and not acid fast genus in the family Streptosporangiaceae that forms cylindrical to clavate sporangium, which contains a single motile sporangiospore on the aerial mycelium [6]. Substrate and aerial mycelia develop on various agar culture media. Substrate mycelia (0.6-1.0 µm in diameter) of Planomonospora strains are irregularly branched, occasionally septate, and non-fragmenting. Aerial mycelia (0.4-1.1 µm in diameter) are sparsely branched and rarely septate. Cylindrical to clavate sporangia (0.9-1.5 µm wide × 3.5-5.5 µm long), each containing a single spore, are formed only on the aerial mycelium [7]. Generally, the isolated Planomonospora strains are chemoorganotrophic, aerobic and mesophilic micro-organisms (grows well between 28 and 37°C). Usually, the colonies of Planomonospora strains grown on complex agar media are raised or flat with rugose or smooth surface. The color of substrate mycelium is either rose to light orange or brown-violet to light brown. The aerial mycelium is white with a rose or grayish white. The peptidoglycan of the cell walls contains meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP), and madurose is the characteristic sugar of whole-cell hydrolysates.

The name Planomonospora is derived from ancient Greek: Planos meaning wanderer (or vagabond), monos meaning solitary (single), and spora meaning a spore (a seed). The name therefore describes a motile, single organism with a single endospore.

At the time of writing, the genus Planomonospora still comprised only six species (including two sub-species) with validly published names: Planomonospora parontosporasubsp. parontospora, Planomonospora parontosporasubsp.antibiotica, Planomonospora venezuelensis, Planomonospora sphaerica, Planomonospora alba, Planomonospora corallina and recently Planomonospora algeriensis as described by CHAABANE CHAOUCH et al. (2016) [8].

As far as we are aware, no reports are available on the diversity and the characteristics of the members of Planomonospora in Saharan soils. The current study was designed to describe the isolation, the taxonomic position of a new actinobacterium, strain PM18, belonging to the genus Planomonospora isolated from Algerian Saharan soil.

1. - Materials and methods

1.1. - Isolation of the actinobacterial strain

Three non-rhizospheric Saharan soil samples (5–20 cm of depth) were collected aseptically from Béni-Abbès (Béchar, Saoura region, South-West Algeria). The samples were placed in sterile polyethylene bags, closed tightly and stored at 4°C until analysis. The soil samples were air-dried at room temperature for 10 days before being baked at 120°C for 1 h [9].The soil was then suspended in sterile distilled water, serially diluted and spread-plated on chitin-vitamin B agar medium[10] supplemented with polymyxin and/or penicillin each at 25 mg l-1. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 28 days, and all colonies were examined directly by light microscopy to detect the Planomonospora-like isolates.

1.2. - Cultural and morphological characteristics of strain PM18

Morphological properties were observed by light microscopy (Model B1, Motic) using cultures grown on various International Streptomyces Project media (ISP 2, ISP 3, ISP 4, ISP 6 and ISP 7) [11], Glucose-Asparagine Agar [11], HTA: Hickey-Tresner-Agar [12] and Bennett’s medium [13] at 30°C for 14 days. The color of substrate and aerial mycelia was recorded using ISCCNBS color charts [14].

1.3. - Physiological characteristics of strain PM18

Production of melanoid pigments was tested on peptone yeast extract-iron agar (ISP 6) and tyrosine agar (ISP 7) media [11]. Sensitivities to sodium chloride (0–4%) (w/v) and growth at 20, 30, 40 and 45°C and pH 4.0–12.0 were evaluated on HTA (Hickey-Tresner-Agar) medium. Other physiological characteristics, including utilization of sole carbon sources, decarboxylation of organic acids, degradation of adenine, aesculin, arbutin, casein, cellulose, gelatin, guanine, hypoxanthine, starch, Tween 80, tyrosine and xanthine, reduction of nitrate, milk peptonization and milk coagulation, were assessed by the media and methods of GORDON et al. (1974) and WILLIAMS et al. (1989) [15, 16].

1.4. - DNA extraction, PCR amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing

The strain PM18 was grown at 30°C for 4 days with agitation (250 rpm) in a 500 ml flask containing 100 mL of ISP 2 medium. Biomass was harvested by centrifugation (8,000 rpm for 10 min) and washed twice with double-distilled water. The 16S rRNA was amplified by PCR using an Invitrogen kit and two universal primers: 27f (5’–AGAGTTT GATCCTGGCTCAG–3’) and 1492r (5’–GGTTACCTTGTT ACGACTT–3’). The PCR amplification was conducted using a thermocycler (STRATAGENE RoboCycler Gradient 96) in 50 μl containing 1.25 U of Taq DNA polymerase, 1 μl (500 ng) of purified DNA, 1 × PCR buffer (10 mM of Tris–HCl, 50 mmol of KCl, pH 9.0 at 25°C), 1.5 mmol of MgCl2, 200 μmol of each dNTP and 1 μmol of each primer. Reaction conditions were: 97°C for 4 min, followed by 35 cycles of 97°C for 45 s, 52°C for 45 s, and 72°C for 45 s, with a final elongation step at 72°C for 10 min. The amplified products were visualized on a 0.8% (w/v) agarose gel by ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence after ethidium bromide staining. PCR products were purified with a PCR product purification kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). The PCR products were sequenced using the same primers as above on an automated sequencer (model 3130 Genetic Analyzer; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) using a Big Dye Terminator v 3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems), according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

1.5. - Phylogenetic analysis

The identification of phylogenetic neighbors and calculation of pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were achieved using the EzTaxon-e server (http://eztaxon-e.ezbiocloud.net/) [17], a web-based tool for the identification of prokaryotes based on 16S rRNA gene sequences from type strains. Multiple alignments with sequences from closely related species were performed by using the program CLUSTAL W (with default parameters) in MEGA version 6 [18]. Evolutionary distance was generated as described by Jukes and Cantor [19] and a phylogenetic tree was inferred by the neighbor-joining method [20]. Tree topologies were evaluated by bootstrap analysis [21], based on 1000 re-samplings of the neighbor-joining dataset.

2. - Results and discussion

In total, 14 actinobacterial Planomonospora-like isolates were harvested from Saharan soil samples collected in Béni-Abbès, Béchar, Saoura region, South-West Algeria (GPS coordinates 30° 08' N and 02° 10' W). Among them one strain, designated PM18, was isolated on chitin-vitamins agar medium supplemented by polymyxin (cyclic peptide antibiotic inhibits mainly Gran-negative bacteria) as a selective agent from a soil sample that was previously baked at 120°C for 1 h.

Strain Planomonospora sp. PM18 showed good growth on Hickey-Tresner agar (HTA) and Bennett’s agar media, moderate growth on ISP 3, ISP 4 and ISP 7 and little growth on ISP 2 and Glucose-Asparagine Agar, but no growth occurred on ISP 6 medium. Strain PM18 forms an extensively branched and non-fragmented substrate mycelium which was orange on ISP 2 and ISP 3, pink-orange on ISP 4 and beige on ISP 7, Glucose-Asparagine Agar, Hickey-Tresner agar and Bennett’s agar media. It produces scanty white aerial mycelia on ISP 3, ISP 4, Glucose-Asparagine Agar, Hickey-Tresner agar and Bennett’s agar with cylindrical sporangia arranged in double parallel rows (Figure 1).

E06020201

Each one contains a single motile sporangiospore. No spherical bodies were produced on the aerial mycelia on ISP 4 medium. No diffusible pigments or melanoid pigments were observed on any media tested. The cultural characteristics of strain Planomonospora sp. PM18 are summarized in Table I.

Table I.- Macromorphological characteristics of strain PM18 on different media after 14 days of incubation (+: weak, ++: moderate, +++: well, –: no one)

Agar medium

Growth

Production and color of:

Aerial mycelium

Substrate mycelium

ISP 2

+

Orange

ISP 3

++

+ white

Orange

ISP 4

++

+ white

Pink–orange

ISP 6

SP 7

++

Beige

GAA

+

+ white

Pale beige

HTA

+++

+ white

Beige

With regard to physiological characteristics, strain PM18 could utilize L-arabinose, D-cellobiose, D-galactose, D-glucose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, salicin, trehalose, D-xylose, sodium acetate, sodium butyrate, sodium lactate, sodium pyruvate and sodium succinate as sole carbon source, but not adonitol, cellulose, D-fructose, glycerol, myo-inositol, lactose, melezitose, melibiose, α-Methyl-D-glucoside, raffinose, D-ribose, sorbitol, sucrose and sodium salts of the following organic acids: benzoate, citrate, oxalate, propionate and tartrate. It is positive for milk peptonization, nitrate reduction and decomposition ofaesculin, arbutin, casein, gelatin, starch, L-tyrosine and Tween 80, but negative for milk coagulation and decomposition of adenine, hypoxanthine and xanthine.

Strain PM18 grew between 20-45°C, pH 5.0-11.0 and in the presence of 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Table II shows the results of physiological tests of strain PM18 in comparison with the most closely related species Planomonospora sphaerica DSM 44632T.

Table II.- Physiological characteristics of strain PM18 compared with the most closely related species Planomonospora sphaerica DSM 44632T (1: strain PM18; 2: Planomonospora sphaerica DSM 44632T; +: Positive reaction; –: negative reaction; ND: not determined; *: Data from Mertz [22])

Characteristics

1

2*

 

Characteristics

1

2

Growth on sole carbon sources

 

Citrate

Adonitol

 

Lactate

+

+

L-Arabinose

+

+

 

Oxalate

D-Cellobiose

+

+

 

Propionate

Cellulose

 

Pyruvate

+

+

D-Fructose

+

 

Succinate

+

D-Galactose

+

+

 

Tartrate

D-Glucose

+

+

 

Decomposition of:

Glycerol

 

Aesculin

+

Myo-Inositol

 

Adenine

Lactose

 

Arbutin

+

ND

Maltose

+

+

 

Casein

+

+

D-Mannitol

+

+

 

Gelatin

+

+

D-Mannose

+

+

 

Hypoxanthine

Melezitose

 

Starch

+

+

Melibiose

 

L-Tyrosine

+

+

α-Methyl-D-glucoside

 

Xanthine

L-Rhamnose

+

+

 

Tween 80

+

ND

Raffinose

 

Milk coagulation

ND

D-Ribose

    –

 

Milk peptonization

+

ND

Salicin

+

+

 

pH range

5–11

ND

Sorbitol

 

Nitrate reduction

+

+

Sucrose

+

 

Growth at 45°C

+

Trehalose

+

+

 

Growth at 2% NaCl (w/v)

+

D-Xylose

+

+

       

Decarboxylation of sodium

       

Acetate

+

+

       

Benzoate

       

Butyrate

+

+

       

The almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1461 nt) of strain PM18 was determined. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that strain PM18 belonged to the genus Planomonospora. The 16S rRNA sequence of strain Planomonospora sp. PM18 exhibited the highest similarities, 99.23% with Planomonospora sphaerica JCM 9374T and 98.81% with Planomonospora parontospora subsp. antibiotica JCM 3094T. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences to show the comparative relationship between strain Planomonospora sp. PM18 and other Planomonospora species (fig. 2). The phylogenetic tree based on the neighbor-joining algorithm showed that strain Planomonospora sp. PM18 lies in a clade with its closest neighbor P. sphaerica JCM 9374T at a bootstrap value of 99%.

E06020202

Besides of the separate position of strain PM18 in the phylogenetic tree, it differs with Planomonospora sphaerica JCM 9374T in a number of morphologic characteristics such as the absence of the spherical bodies and physiologic features (tab. II). Hence, it is clear that this strain may be a new species of Planomonospora. Still, DNA/DNA hybridization experiments and chemotaxonomic analysis need to be performed to confirm this separate taxonomic status.

It is evident from this current research that rare actinobacteria from Algerian Saharan soils notably Planomonospora strains may be an excellent source of novel taxa.

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